|Glossary of Immunological Terms - A|
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These are chemicals on cell surfaces (Proteins or Phospholipids) that enable cells to stick or bind together. These are important on the surface of placental cells to allow them to attach to the uterus and to allow the placental cells to join together to make the placenta.
This is the product of a gene. The gene contains information for the DQ molecule or antenna. Once the antenna or molecule is expressed on the cell surface, it is called an Allele or an antigen.
Any substance that induces an allergy (mold, grasses, antibiotics, etc.).
This is a condition that involve an immunity in the body against a variety of things that can come into the body including grasses, pollens, molds, etc. The immunity that results is a special one involving an antibody called IgE. This antibody when it combines with the allergen (pollen, mold, antibiotics) causes the immune system to make inflammation that can result in itching, asthma, red eyes etc.
An antibody in an individual that is directed against another individual of the same species. Blocking antibodies produced during pregnancy are antibodies of this type.
This is the chemical that induces the immune response in the woman during pregnancy. The alloantigen is provided by the father to the baby's placenta.
A condition characterized by a specific antibody reaction to another human being. Recognition is usually mediated by small polypeptide chains on the cell membrane. Rh sensitivity is set up by this type of immunity.
A procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid (fluid around the baby) is removed through a needle from the fluid filled sac, in which the baby is living. It is done at about 16 weeks of pregnancy. The fluid is studied for chromosomal and other biochemical abnormalities that may affect the health and well being of the baby.
ANA (Antinuclear Antibody).
This test checks for problems similar to lupus and rheumatoid arthritis or other similar immunological diseases which are associated with pregnancy losses or infertility. This test becomes weakly positive in women with infertility and in women with recurrent pregnancy losses. This antibody causes inflammation in the body or in the uterus when a baby attaches. It is usually reported as ANA positive with at titer of 1:40 or higher with a speckled pattern. This pattern is not typical of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis or other immunological disorders.
This is an acute, emergency immune reaction that occurs in some patients with allergies. It results in the release of toxins by the immune system that cause the person to pass out, stop breathing, develop asthma and in some cases go into shock and die.
If a woman reacts to the broken down DNA (histones) and it is a speckled pattern, then she is showing a reaction to her own embryos.
The chemical that is introduced into a person that starts and completes an immune response. When you are vaccinated (measles), the measles virus is the antigen that results in the antibody that protects you from developing measles.
APA (Antiphospholipid Antibody).
These are antibodies in the blood that attach to phospholipids that are structures on the surfaces of all cells. A positive APA test indicates that the woman's blood clots too fast cutting off blood flow to the baby. These antibodies can also cause the placenta to attach too weakly to the uterus. The usual treatment is baby aspirin and heparin (a blood thinner). Heparin is given as an injection. Both medications are started before pregnancy during the cycle of conception; these are the least controversial of all the treatments for infertility or recurrent pregnancy losses.
A condition characterized by a specific antibody (antiphospholipid antibody or antibodies to DNA) or cells (such as Natural Killer Cells) which react with molecules or constituents of the body's own tissue and cause disease such as Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.