Studies on Immune Problems


Natural Killer cell studies
Th1/Th2 studies
Th17 studies
T regulatory cell studies
IVIG studies
Intralipid studies
G-CSF (Neupogen) studies
Heparin studies
Corticosteroid studies
Lymphocyte Immunization Therapy (LIT) studies
Anti-TNF therapy (Humira and Enbrel) studies
Our recent research on immunological problems
Additional resources


Natural Killer cell studies 

  1. King K, Smith S, Chapman M, Sacks G. Detailed analysis of peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells in women with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2010 Jan;25(1):52-8.


  1. Thum MY, Bhaskaran S, Abdalla HI, Ford B, Sumar N, Shehata H, Bansal AS. An increase in the absolute count of CD56dimCD16+CD69+ NK cells in the peripheral blood is associated with a poorer IVF treatment and pregnancy outcome. Hum Reprod. 2004 Oct;19(10):2395-400.


  1. Ntrivalas EI, Kwak-Kim JY, Gilman-Sachs A, Chung-Bang H, Ng SC, Beaman KD, Mantouvalos HP, Beer AE. Status of peripheral blood natural killer cells in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions and infertility of unknown aetiology. Hum Reprod. 2001 May;16(5):855-61.


  1. Emmer PM, Nelen WL, Steegers EA, Hendriks JC, Veerhoek M, Joosten I. Peripheral natural killer cytotoxicity and CD56(pos)CD16(pos) cells increase during early pregnancy in women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod. 2000 May;15(5):1163-9.


  1. Beer AE, Kwak JY, Ruiz JE. Immunophenotypic profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in women with recurrent pregnancy losses and in infertile women with multiple failed in vitro fertilization cycles. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1996 Apr;35(4):376-82.


Th1/Th2  studies


1. Kwak-Kim JY, Chung-Bang HS, Ng SC, Ntrivalas EI, Mangubat CP, Beaman KD, Beer AE, Gilman-Sachs A. Increased T helper 1 cytokine responses by circulating T cells are present in women with recurrent pregnancy losses and in infertile women with multiple implantation failures after IVF. Hum Reprod. 2003 Apr;18(4):767-73

2. Raghupathy R, Makhseed M, Azizieh F, Omu A, Gupta M, Farhat R. Cytokine production by maternal lymphocytes during normal human pregnancy and in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod. 2000 Mar;15(3):713-8. PubMed PMID: 10686225

3.Ahmadi M, Abdolmohammadi-Vahid S, Ghaebi M, Aghebati-Maleki L, Afkham A, Danaii S, Abdollahi-Fard S, Heidari L, Jadidi-Niaragh F, Younesi V, Nouri M, Yousefi M. Effect of Intravenous immunoglobulin on Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and improvement of pregnancy outcome in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Aug;92:1095-1102.


Th17 studies


1. Fu B, Tian Z, Wei H. TH17 cells in human recurrent pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia. Cell Mol Immunol. 2014;11(6):564-570.

2Figueiredo AS, Schumacher A. The T helper type 17/regulatory T cell paradigm in pregnancy [published correction appears in Immunology. 2019 Feb;156(2):213]. Immunology. 2016;148(1):13-21.

3Sereshki N, Gharagozloo M, Ostadi V, et al. Variations in T-helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells during The Menstrual Cycle in Peripheral Blood of Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion. Int J Fertil Steril. 2014;8(1):59-66.


T regulatory cell studies


  1. Saito S, Shima T, Nakashima A, Shiozaki A, Ito M, Sasaki Y. What is the role of regulatory T cells in the success of implantation and early pregnancy? J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007 Sep;24(9):379-86. Review.


  1. Guerin LR, Prins JR, Robertson SA. Regulatory T-cells and immune tolerance in pregnancy: a new target for infertility treatment? Hum Reprod Update. 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):517-35. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmp004. Epub 2009 Mar 11. Review.


IVIG studies


  1. Clark DA, Coulam CB, Stricker RB. Is intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) efficacious in early pregnancy failure? A critical review and meta-analysis for patients who fail in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF). J Assist Reprod Genet. 2006 Jan;23(1):1-13. Epub 2006 Jan 19. Review.


  1. Christiansen OB, Pedersen B, Rosgaard A, Husth M. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in the prevention of recurrent miscarriage: evidence for a therapeutic effect in women with secondary recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2002 Mar;17(3):809-16.


  1. Yamada H, Kishida T, Kobayashi N, Kato EH, Hoshi N, Fujimoto S. Massive immunoglobulin treatment in women with four or more recurrent spontaneous primary abortions of unexplained aetiology. Hum Reprod. 1998 Sep;13(9):2620-3.


  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG): modes of action in the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and selected autoimmune disordersClin Chem Lab Med 2004 Apr;42(4):359-70. Review.


Intralipid studies


  1. Kumar P, Mahajan S. Preimplantation and postimplantation therapy for the treatment of reproductive failure. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2013 Apr;6(2):88-92. Review.


G-CSF (Neupogen) studies


  1. Scarpellini F, Sbracia M. Use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for the treatment of unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a randomised controlled trial. Hum Reprod. 2009 Nov;24(11):2703-8.


  1. Salmassi A, Schmutzler AG, Schaefer S, Koch K, Hedderich J, Jonat W, Mettler L. Is granulocyte colony-stimulating factor level predictive for human IVF outcome? Hum Reprod. 2005 Sep;20(9):2434-40.


Heparin studies


  1. Mak A, Cheung MW, Cheak AA, Ho RC. Combination of heparin and aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in enhancing live births in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and positive anti-phospholipid antibodies: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and meta-regression. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010 Feb;49(2):281-8.


  1. Allahbadia GN, Allahbadia SG. Low molecular weight heparin in immunological recurrent abortion–the incredible cure. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2003 Feb;20(2):82-90. Review.


  1. Rai R, Cohen H, Dave M, Regan L. Randomised controlled trial of aspirin and aspirin plus heparin in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospholipid antibodies). BMJ. 1997 Jan 25;314(7076):253-7.


Corticosteroid studies


  1. Bramham K, Thomas M, Nelson-Piercy C, Khamashta M, Hunt BJ. First-trimester low-dose prednisolone in refractory antiphospholipid antibody-related pregnancy loss. Blood. 2011 Jun 23;117(25):6948-51.


Lymphocyte Immunization Therapy (LIT) studies

 1. Kling C, Steinmann J, Westphal E, Magez J, Kabelitz D. Adverse effects of intradermal allogeneic lymphocyte immunotherapy: acute reactions and role of autoimmunity. Hum Reprod. 2006 Feb;21(2):429-35.

2.Nonaka T, Takakuwa K, Ooki I, Akashi M, Yokoo T, Kikuchi A, Tanaka K. Results of immunotherapy for patients with unexplained primary recurrent abortions–prospective non-randomized cohort study. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2007 Dec;58(6):530-6.

3.Liu Z, Xu H, Kang X, Wang T, He L, Zhao A. Allogenic Lymphocyte Immunotherapy for Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2016 Dec;76(6):443-453. doi: 10.1111/aji.12511.

4.Cavalcante MB, Sarno M, Araujo Júnior E, Da Silva Costa F, Barini R. Lymphocyte immunotherapy in the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017 Feb;295(2):511-518. doi: 10.1007/s00404-016-4270-.

5.Hajipour H, Nejabati HR, Latifi Z, Hamdi K, Bahrami-Asl Z, Fattahi A, Nouri M. Lymphocytes immunotherapy for preserving pregnancy: Mechanisms and Challenges. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2018 Sep;80(3):e12853. doi: 10.1111/aji.12853.


Anti-TNF therapy (Humira and Enbrel) studies


  1. Winger EE, Reed JL. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and intravenous immunoglobulin improves live birth rates in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008 Jul;60(1):8-16.


  1. Sills ES, Walsh DJ, Shkrobot LV, Palermo GD, Walsh AP. Clinical experience with intravenous immunoglobulin and tnf-a inhibitor therapies for recurrent pregnancy loss. Ulster Med J. 2009 Jan;78(1):57-8. 


Our research on immunological problems


1. MC Fesler, MC Sanow, DL Mantle, GE Trobough, N Nasseri-Nik, RB Stricker. Chronic Histiocytic Intervillositis Successful Treatment of Recurrent Miscarriage with Anticoagulation and Immunotherapy. ASRI 2021 (POSTER)

2. Reed JL. Winger EE. IVIg therapy increases delivery birthweight in babies born to women with preconception proportion of peripheral blood NK cells greater than twelve percent. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Vol. 44, n. 3

3. Winger EE, Reed JL, Ashoush S, El-Toukhy T, Taranissi M. Die-Off Ratio Correlates with Increased TNF-á:IL-10 Ratio and Decreased IVF Success Rates Correctable with Humira. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Jul 30. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01179.x. 

4. Virro M, Winger EE, Reed JL. Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Repeated IVF Failure and Unexplained Infertility. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Jul 17. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01169.x. 

5. Winger EE, Reed JL, Ashoush S, El-Toukhy T, Ahuja S, Taranissi M. Elevated Preconception CD56(+) 16(+) and/or Th1:Th2 Levels Predict Benefit from IVIG Therapy in Subfertile Women Undergoing IVF. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 May 30. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.01018.x.

6. Winger EE, Reed JL, Ashoush S, El-Toukhy T, Ahuja S, Taranissi M. Birth Defect Rates in Women Using Adalimumab (Humira(®) ) to Treat Immunologic-Based Infertility in IVF Patients. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Apr 19. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.00994.x. 

7. Winger EE, Reed JL. Low Circulating CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T Regulatory Cell Levels Predict Miscarriage Risk in Newly Pregnant Women with a History of Failure. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Feb 14. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.00992.x.

8. Winger EE , Reed JL, Ashoush S, Ahuja S , El-Toukhy T, Taranissi M: Degree of TNF-a/IL-10 Cytokine Elevation Correlates With IVF Success Rates in Women Undergoing Treatment With Adalimumab (Humira) and IVIG. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011
9. Winger EE, Reed JL:A retrospective analysis of fondaparinux versus enoxaparin treatment in women with infertility or pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol 2009 Oct;62(4):253-60. Epub 2009 Aug 24.

10. Winger EE, Reed JL, Ashoush S, Sapna A, El-Toukhy T, Taranissi M: “Treatment with adalimumab (Humira) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) improves pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2009; 61:113-120.

11. Winger EE, Reed JL: Treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and intravenous immunoglobulin improves live birth rates in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol 2008; 60:8-16. Free full text article: Click here.

12. Winger EE, Reed JL, Stricker RB: Los Gatos, USA Lymphocyte Immunization Therapy (LIT) Combined with Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Improves Live Birth Rates in Women with Primary Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) European Conference for Reproductive Immunology, Berlin, Germany, Sept 2 2007.

13. Winger EE: CD57+ cells and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol 2007 Oct;58(4):311-4.

14. Stricker RB, Winger EE. Update on treatment of immunologic abortion with low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2005 Dec;54(6):390-6.

15. Stricker RB, Steinleitner A, Winger EE: Intravenous immunoglogulin (IVIG) therapy for immunologic abortion. Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews 2 (2002) 187-199. Free full text article: Click here.

16. Stricker RB, Steinleitner A, Bookoff CN, Weckstein LN, Winger EE. Successful treatment of immunologic abortion with low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Fertil Steril. 2000 Mar;73(3):536-40.

Additional resources:

American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

Journal of Reproductive Immunology