|Glossary of Immunological Terms - L|
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The insertion of a long, thin, lighted, telescope instrument called the laparoscope into the body cavity through an incision usually in the navel. During this procedure the body cavity is pumped full of gas and this allows the doctor to inspect the contents of the pelvic and abdominal cavities. Sometimes other incisions may be made and additional instruments need to be inserted to allow correction of any abnormalities such as removal of endometriosis, ovarian cysts, pregnancies that are in the tubes etc. A surgeon can also remove scar tissue and open closed tubes during this procedure. He can also flush the tubes to see if they are open. Many times the doctor also looks inside the uterus with a specially designed instrument called the hysteroscope.
Leukocyte Antibody Detection (Cross Match).
This is the assay to measure humoral immune responses (antibody production) in the mother (or mother to be) against her husband. These immunity is achieved naturally during a normal pregnancy. Women with recurrent pregnancy losses or infertility tend to have lower antibody level.
A white blood cell, i.e. a lymphocytes
LIT (Lymphocyte Immunization Therapy).
Lymphocyte immune therapy is used in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. This immunization is made from the father-to-be's blood or sometimes from a donor's blood. It is injected under the skin of the mother's forearm. This is done twice, separated by one month. Testing to see that it has worked is done one month after the second treatment. Common reactions to this treatment include: swelling, irritation, and itching at the injection site. Some women run a fever after this treatment.
Luteinizing hormone (LH).
This pituitary hormone works in concert with FSH. FSH starts the development of the egg, and LH finishes the development and starts progesterone production. FSH is important to stimulate the cells of the follicle to produce Estrogen. LH is important to stimulate the cells of the follicle that produce Progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. A certain ratio of FSH to LH tells the ovary when to release the egg (ovulation). In the male, LH stimulates the testicles to produce the male hormone testosterone.
This is a gland that is composed of a collection of lymphocytes that is connected to lymphatic vessels that circulate the lymph in the body. These are basically filters that are looking for something that has entered the body like a germ, virus, pollen, mold, chemical. It is in this gland that the immunity response is begun. This often causes swelling of the gland because many of the lymphocytes are reproducing and increasing their numbers to assist in the battle that will eliminate the foreign interloper.
This is the fluid-like plasma in blood, that contains the lymphocytes of the immunity system.
This is a white blood cell that is in charge of starting antigen specific immunity responses. There are many types of lymphocytes in the immune family. These consist of T cells, B cells, granulocytes, basophils, mast cells, eosiniophils, Natural Killer Cells, etc. Each cell type has a CD designation. (See guide to interpret the results of the reproductive immunophenotype.